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Book of Judith. Spiritual meaning of Judith

God makes Himself known again, for it is not by chance that a weak but humble and beautiful woman named Judith is placed there, representing God’s small and oppressed people. The conflict between the two characters is the battle between good and evil, unrelated to a specific time and place. To find out her story, you must read the Book of Judith.

The book of Judith is written by the “warrior” Judith herself. It contains numerous historical and geographical dichotomies precisely because it is not intended to be an account of historical facts but an exposition of super-historical elements. From a literary point of view, it can be defined as didactic writing cloaked in elements of historical narrative, which aims to show the powers and forces that determine the course of history. Thus, the powerful and cruel Holofernes is the expression of a world power that is sure of itself but an enemy of God.

The spiritual meaning of the name Judith has the sense of “a woman from Judea,” the Holy Land, who is a female biblical hero of faith because she fights fearlessly with God’s help for her people.

The story of Judith has many meanings and can be interpreted in many ways. She remains a model of a beautiful and intelligent woman, serious and independent, courageous, and able to take her destiny into her own hands.

Who is Judith?

Judith is brilliant and an excellent speaker. When the rulers of Bethulia are about to decide to surrender the city to the Assyrians, Judith gives a well-reasoned speech convincing them to wait and let her act on a plan known only to her.

Judith is a female biblical character who a widow represents. She is a wonderful, good-natured, and serious woman. Judith was a beautiful, wealthy, conquering widow from the small town of Bethulia in Judea. The quiet of the city was shattered when King Nebuchadnezzar’s Assyrian army, led by General Holofernes, arrived at its gates to conquer it. And Judith fought with all the armor of God to defeat him.

This remarkable woman, Judith, sets her mind to use all the arsenal the good Lord has endowed her with to save her city from perdition. She stripped herself of her widow’s garments, bathed and anointed herself with spices, combed her hair, put a turban on her head, and put on her garments of gladness. She put on sandals, necklaces, bracelets, rings, earrings, and all her ornaments and adorned herself to win the eyes of every man who saw her.

Biography of Judith

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Biblical places from the times of Judith

  1. Italy- The italic people and the exact location of Italy
  2. Rome- Where is the exact location of Rome? Is it the same as ancient Rome?
  3. Palmyrene Empire- Does Pamyrene still exist?

What is the meaning of Judith in the Bible?

Judith is the beautiful, wealthy, and pious widow presented in the Old Testament. With wisdom and intelligence, she warns the assembly of the people not to test God as a man and declares: I want to do a deed that the children will remember of your tribe from generation to generation. But first, he prays to God to give him strength: For Your power is not in numbers, nor is Your might in the strength of horses, but You are the God of the humble, the help of the lowly, the support of the weak, the refuge of the forsaken, the deliverer of the hopeless.

The meaning of Judith in the Bible is the importance of a woman from Judea and the broader sense of a holy woman from the sacred land, the idea being, according to biblical texts, the land of God, the chosen ground. Her name means Jewess. Incidentally, the term Judean comes from the tribe of Judah, in Hebrew Yehudah, which is usually explained as short for Yehud-el, God be glorified.

By her beauty, Judith enchants the leader of the enemy army Holofernes who was leading the siege of her city, and in her sleep, she cuts off the tyrant’s head, thus saving the people from imminent destruction. These lines briefly contain the story of the biblical book that bears this heroine’s name, dating from around 9100 BC.

What did Judith do in the Bible?

Holofernes, bewitched by the beauty of his visitor, throws a party to which he invites Judith with the idea of getting her into bed. India accepts the two-party with lots of wine. Near midnight, the servants discreetly retire, leaving the general alone with the woman he desires. Badly groggy from drinking, Holofrene falls asleep soundly on the bed. She takes his sword and cuts off his head, which she stuffs into the chest of goods.

Judith in the Bible is credited with saving her people by cutting off Holofern’s head. She comes up with a plan to save her people from defeat. After praying for a whole day, she puts on her most elegant clothes and makes herself so beautiful that she is sure no man will resist her. Then she asks her maid to take a basket of goods and jugs of wine and oil, and with it, she leaves the city and heads for the Assyrian army. When the two women encounter the first patrol of enemies, Judith asks to be taken before Holofernes to reveal how she can conquer Bethulia without her army suffering any losses.

On the way to the general’s tent, Judith’s beauty arouses the admiration of all the soldiers. After revealing her miraculous plan to Holofernes, Judith asks his permission to leave his camp at midnight so that she can pray in silence. He is granted the requested leave, and Judith takes her servant and, with her bundle of goods with her, leaves to pray. She repeats the request for three nights so that all the soldiers at the posts become accustomed to the two women’s nightly departures, carrying their full pouch behind them.

Key Verse related to Judith

When Judith had finished her prayer to the God of Israel, she stood up, called her slave woman, and went down into the house as she always did on Sabbaths and festival days. She took off the sackcloth and her widow’s clothes, bathed and put on rich perfumes. And she also brushed her hair, tied a ribbon around it, and dressed in the fine clothes she used to wear on joyful occasions when her husband Manasseh was still alive. She put on sandals and all her finest jewelry: rings, earrings, and bracelets on her wrists and ankles. And she made herself so beautiful that she was sure to attract the attention of any man who saw her.

Judith 10:1-5 (GNT)

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The Book of Judith summary

Holofernes decides to surround the city where Judith lives and cut off the water supply to its inhabitants. For thirty-four days, the inhabitants of Bethulia held out without water, but after that, they demanded that their rulers hand the city over to Holofernes. The rulers asked the inhabitants to hold out for five more days; if God did not help them somehow during that time, they would surrender the city.

The summary of Judith’s story is as follows: A beautiful but widowed woman is going through a war with her people. And she uses her wits and physical charms to attract the military leader of the opposing tribe. Judith returns to Bethulia with Holofern’s head in a little boot. The city is saved. She is treated as a hero, but until her death, at age 105, she does not give up her independence, even though many have asked her to marry. What’s more, she frees her maid from bondage.

In the book of Judith, the moment when she asks Holofernes for permission to leave his camp at midnight so that she can pray in silence is shown. She receives the requested leave, and Judith takes her maid and, with her bag of goods with them, leaves to pray. She repeats the request for three nights so that all the soldiers at the posts become accustomed to the two women’s nightly departures, carrying their full pouch behind them.

Judith and Holofernes story

Bethulia, a city in the Northern Kingdom with a unique strategic position, was besieged by the Assyrian armies led by General Holofernes. The siege meant that no one inside the city could get out to get supplies. It was a close call. In this situation, humanly speaking, with no way out except surrender, God gives courage to Judith, a young, God-fearing widow, and she will be the savior of the city.

The Story of Judith and Holofernes points to the idea that Judith is a beautiful, widowed woman from Bethulia, who takes advantage of her beauty and charm, wins the trust of General Holofernes, and he throws a party during which, in his rage, Judith cuts off his head. In the morning, after the soldiers find Holofern dead, terrified, they scatter, freeing the city from the siege. Thus both Bethulia and the Jerusalem that would follow escaped the Assyrian invasion.

Olofern’s body is contorted in death spasms. The maid, old and withered but with the attitude of a grandmother ready to help her granddaughter with an unpleasant job, is waiting to squeeze the victim’s skull into a cloth. And subsequently, the war was once again won by the Lord of Hosts through a solitary widow.

Is the Book of Judith Apocrypha?

Apocryphal books are writings that contain things that are hidden, secret, misunderstood, or come from unknown authors who, for some reason, wanted to remain anonymous—such books circulated in ancient times among pagans and Jews, Christians, and heretics.

The book of Judith is considered Apocrypha because it is not part of the Bible. It is being excluded for its seductive character. However, it is still considered to be a holy book. One of the sacred books that constituted the starting point and basis of discussion in inter-Christian dialogues for formulating the truths of faith and establishing points of rapprochement and collaboration, the question of a standard text of the Holy Scriptures, and especially of the books of the Old Testament, has always been raised.

Even the Jews composed such writings, which they attributed to biblical patriarchs, prophets, or other prominent personalities. They deal with secret teachings or particular revelations. Some pious Jews spread these writings. Gradually, however, the custom degenerated, and such reports began to be written for sectarian and fraudulent purposes. Eventually, the Apocrypha started to claim the sacred and inspired character.

Why is the Book of Judith not in the Bible?

In the Book of Judith, the story is told of how an Assyrian king with a Babylonian name, Nebuchadnezzar, defeated and destroyed his political rival, the powerful Mesid king Arphaxad of Ecbatana, on the battlefield, along with all his allies. Drunk with power and grandeur, Nebuchadnezzar now claims dominion over the whole world. He sends Holofernes, the commander of his troops, with a mighty army to conquer the lands of the earth, ready to kill and plunder wherever resistance is met. 

Unfortunately, the Book of Judith is not in the Bible because heresies and rabbis have removed it. After all, it focuses on seduction and physical beauty, which the Bible does not promote. As in the book of Esther or Tobit, the main character is also Judith. The book was written in the second half of the second century BC, in Palestine, by a Jew whose name is unknown. And through this book, the author wants to highlight God’s care for his people even when they are in distress.

In the face of the Aramah marching triumphantly against Israel, the tiny and helpless people of Judah, led by the high priest Jehoiakim, improvise an armed resistance and ask for God’s help through fasting and prayer. And God instructs the heroine Judith to fight in His name.

What is the real purpose of Judith’s book?

God saves Bethulia and Jerusalem, just as He once saved humanity through one family, Lot’s family, just as He saved the Israelite people from Egypt through great miracles and signs, a sign that God’s promise remains valid through the continuation of its fulfillment this time is through a woman. As in the case of Esther.

The theological purpose and message of the Book of Judith are that liberation comes not through human strength or power but faithfulness to God. If sin brings punishment, keeping the law brings blessing. God uses the weak and insignificant in his plans to shame those who think they are powerful. This simple widow lived her faith in God in silence and simplicity. She had none of the pride of General Holofernes nor many of the kings of Israel.

Judith knew well what a new pagan occupation could mean. The God of Israel would no longer have a place among the gods of the Assyrians, and punishment would have been inevitable, this time from God himself. To Judith’s credit, amid hardship, she never forgets to cry out to God.

Primary Takeaways

  • An Assyrian king with a Babylonian name, Nebuchadnezzar, defeated and destroyed on the battlefield his political rival, the powerful Mesid king Arphaxad of Ecbatana, along with all his allies.
  • The Book of Judith relates that Judith was a beautiful, wealthy, and conquering widow from the small town of Bethulia in Judea. The quiet of the city was shattered when King Nebuchadnezzar’s Assyrian army, led by general Holofernes, arrived at its gates to conquer it.
  • She became highly regarded for her deed. Although many men wanted to marry her, she never remarried and lived to be 105, leading a life pleasing to God.


Judith is a beautiful and intelligent woman, and Holofernes is a sure victim, and after two nights of leaving her alone, he feels almost compelled to seduce her. So he calls her to him in the middle of the night to drink wine together. Judith, again showing extraordinary strength, struck him twice with all her might and cut off his head.

If you enjoyed reading our article, play the following quiz to test your biblical knowledge about Judith. Thank you for your time!

Bible Trivia about Judith

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Explanation of biblical words

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  • Lucas, P. J. (1992). ‘Judith’and, the woman hero. The Yearbook of English Studies22, 17-27.
  • Craven, T. (2003). The Book of Judith in the Context of Twentieth-Century Studies of the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Currents in Biblical Research1(2), 187-229.
  • Newsom, C. A., & Ringe, S. H. (Eds.). (1998). Women’s Bible commentary. Westminster John Knox Press.
  • Wojciechowski, M. (2012). The moral teaching of the Book of Judith. A Pious seductress: Studies in the Book of Judith, 85-96.
  • Lecoy, F. (1964). La Bible de Macé de la Charité, IV, Ruth, Judith, Tobie, Esther, Daniel, Job, volume.